Topic "Russian soul" as broad and boundless as Russia itself. In the works of foreign and domestic writers as A. Custine, FM Dostoevsky, AI Solzhenitsyn, a Russian man stands before us open, unselfish thinker, constantly looking for the meaning of life and ready to sacrifice themselves for others. In 1975, the light, the book "The Russians" former editor of "New York Times" Hedrick Smith. With his light hand the whole world acquainted with a generous, emotional, sometimes irrational and impulsive "Homo Sovieticus" ("Soviet man").
Disintegration of the USSR destroyed every thing that kept Soviet society: a common ideology, community of peoples and nations, and eventually one language. According to the Levada Center, in 2004 one in four considered himself a Soviet man, in 2010 this percentage does not exceed 12%. Soviet man disappeared into the abyss together with the Soviet era, but some features of the old man remained an integral part of modern man. Did the rebirth "Homo Sovieticus" and what new quality emerged in modern man?
Our and my
Collectivism has for centuries been a typical feature of Russian people: the peasant community, collective farms, cooperatives, labor collectives. Russian people a long time to put the public interest above personal, that are actively maintained by the state. Today collectivism gives way to individualism. Poll independent research organization, the Levada Center 1989 - 2007 showed that in modern society people have a high level of distrust each other. About 75% of citizens said they trusted only to a narrow circle of friends and relatives, the rest is treated with caution. The economy has also collective forms of management are giving way to an individual: more individual entrepreneurs, private companies and foundations. One of the reasons to move to individualism is the lack of a unified national ideology and just tired of the people from this very "social idea" and serving her.
The cult of consumption
Pretty hard to imagine a consumer society in the Soviet Union, recalling stories about parents and empty shelves and "fish days". However, the topic of waste for the Russian people is not new, it is enough to recall the lush balls aristocrats in Czarist Russia or holiday dinners Politburo members. The cult of consumption is growing every year: from 2000 to 2007, consumer demand is growing at 20-30% annually. Moreover, according to a study R-TGI Market, about 57% of citizens say that not go shopping to meet their basic needs for food or clothing, but just for fun.
This cult of consumption (consumerism) in Russia, according to psychologists Levada - Center, has its national - economic causes approximately 70% of the most wealthy Russian citizens said that they did not feel confident in the future and believe that they can lose their state at any time, given the unstable situation. Perhaps this is one of the reasons that motivate people to spend all today not to stay with an empty pocket tomorrow.
Pragmatism replaced altruism
In Soviet citizens actively brought a sense of altruism, selfless desire to help others, serve the state. Played a major role in this idea. The idea of joint construction of a happy future. Today, these beliefs are less occupy the minds of the younger generation. Modern man is more concerned with his own material well-being, there is a more pragmatic approach to life.
According to statistics from the Russian citizens, when compared with those in Western Europe and the U.S., at least make a donation or participate in the activities of charitable organizations. So after the earthquake in Haiti in 2012, most transfers were made citizens of the United States, Germany, Sweden, and the money was raised in the first three days after the disaster, and consisted mainly of transfers citizens themselves. Russia also donated money much later and there were no private investment.
From patriotism to cosmopolitanism
Compared with the Soviet period the modern man is much less patriotic: more people want to go where more comfortable living conditions, less eager to serve his country. A survey conducted by the magazine "Billboard" showed that 77% of citizens want to leave their country. Also in the context of globalization in touch with their country naturally weakened. Patriotism slowly displaces the new ideology - cosmopolitanism. Today's young generation sees itself as free individuals, for whom "home" soon call the entire planet, but are not limited to one country. Access to information and open borders are pushing the boundaries of modern man and give him a choice.
Rebirth "Homo Sovieticus", definitely happening. New generation is becoming more open, informed, democratic, mobile. When this individual interest rises in public place, patriotism in open borders and the opportunity to choose replaced cosmopolitanism. Modern market gives scope for unlimited consumption, and market relations make a person more pragmatic. Hard to say it's good or bad. The new era requires new rules of the game and generates a new "Homo Democraticus".