Many curious and unknowns the nature keeps. Patomsky crater was discovered in 1949 by Vladimir Kolpakov, and it is one of the many other mysterious objects in the world. By size and appearance it resembles a lunar crater. First look led to the first hypothesis - an artificial mound of waste rock that is formed usually by underground mining of coal or other minerals. The height of the crater - 40 meters. View from above resembles a perfectly round the top of volcano, but volcanoes did not appear in these region during a few millions of years. In the center of the crater a semi-circular dome with a diameter of 12 meters is located.
Scientists have different hypotheses: the trail of a large meteorite fall, the consequence of deep gas breakthrough or Patomsky crater has volcanic origin. Samples that were taken by geologists and astronomers have shown the presence of high water at the site and bring new hypothesis - it is cryovolcano that arose from the release of ice from under rock (cryovolcano erupts water, methane and ammonia compounds, both in the liquid and in the gaseous state). First 'cryovolcano' discovered on Titan, ice moon of Saturn.
The crater is located in the zone of permafrost and its age was determined in 500 years, this corresponds to the time of the Little Ice Age.
On closer examination it becomes clear that this is not a man-made phenomenon. Sometimes Patomsky crater is called by the name of its discoverer - the Cone of Kolpakov. Local people call it the "The Nest of Fire Eagle", because from the aerial view it is very similar to the nest with one egg.
Results of the crater studies:
Dendrochronological studies have been carried out, samples were taken from 400 year old tree growing near the crater. One is the study undermined the assumption of Tomsk Expedition 1961 on the fragment of the Tunguska meteorite. Scientists have determined that the annular shaft formed in 2 stages, also they determined the exact coordinates.
Chemical composition studies showed the presence of water, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, on the basis of this we can assert that out gases mantle depths. Professor Antipin said the crater has volcanic origin.
The radiation measured in the area of the crater is higher than outside, hence the crater breathing. Radiation is currently very weak, it is difficult to call even the background, but, based on dendrochronological research in 1942-1943 was higher than the background radiation.
- Meteorite that fell to earth, very similar to the lunar crater. Suggested by Kolpakov.
- Volcanic origin, insisted by Antipin. Patomsky crater is very similar to a volcano Karymskiy.
- The theory of the Tunguska meteorite after the first expeditions became irrelevant.
- Professor Simon's theory of super-dense meteorite that without exploding in the atmosphere, land and flashed the rock fell into the cavity with a gas, where the explosion occurred.
- The result of the introduction of magma. Perhaps this young kimberlite, full of diamonds.
- Hydrogen explosion in the bowels of the earth.
Studies of the crater probably will be continued.
Location on the map
Irkutsk Oblast, Бодайбинский район