Kuril Lake is located in the extreme south of Kamchatka. It is located in the wild rocky shores with impenetrable thickets of shrubs.
Largest lake Kuril - the second (after Kronotskii) from freshwater lakes of Kamchatka. Lake basin is a volcano-tectonic depression length of 12.5 km and a width of 8 km, formed 8300-8400 years ago in a powerful eruption and the subsequent lowering of the Earth's crust.
The lake is located at around 104 meters above sea level. The maximum depth is 316 m, average - 195 m. As the coastal waters of the reserve shallow (depth contours within 50 m), the bottom of the lake with respect to global sea level is located much lower than in the Okhotsk Sea and the Pacific Ocean.
On the lake are built of lava island: Chayachy, Low, and the Heart Alaid arhepelag Samang. They represent a dome height kotoryh200-300 m.
Kuril Lake gives rise to the river Ozernoi. The largest of the rivers flowing into the lake - Hakytsyn (24 km) and Etamynk (18 km).
In historical times, the lake was well lived-natives. The largest Neolithic settlement-fortress found on Cape Siyushk. Aboriginal population was influenced by the Ainu culture. Found in archaeological ceramics Ainu, Japanese bronze coins.
Many of the names used for natural sites in the Lake Kuril, linked with the legends recorded SP Krasheninnikov:
"Once in place of the lake rose highest mountain, so high that covered the neighboring hills the sun, thus causing their anger and arousing frequent quarrels. Finally, they are so tired that" high mountain "got up and went into the Sea of Okhotsk, and in its place the lake was formed, in which she left her heart. On the trail left by the mountain and the river flowed to the sea-headed. "
Heart Alaid now called the rocky island in the southern part of the island, is very similar in shape to the heart.
4 km from the source of the river on the right side of the valley it is located on the unique beauty of pumice outcrop called "Kuthiny baht."
About them SP Krasheninnikov writes: "... 9 miles from the top of the Ozernaya River, and on which side of it - is unknown, it is worth whitish utesnaya mountain, which is not otherwise seem like shuttles, set perpendicular, which for the sake of the Cossacks call it baht stone, and thence the Gentiles tell that God is the creator and Kamchatka Kutkh before his departure lived there for some time, now in stone shuttles Baht or by sea and went to the lake fisheries, and to set out from thence shuttles to classified stone, and so they are in such esteem by them contained that come close to them afraid. "
Kuril Lake in general is characterized by the extensive development of pumice deposits. Their formation is associated with powerful flash silicic volcanism in the Early Holocene time. Power pumice formations reaches 70-110 m.
On the shores of the lake are hot springs. Group outputs water at 45 ° C to - sources "Kuril" - are at the foot of the volcano Elias on the lake in the bay warm environment lava boulders overgrown with birch woodland and elfin wood.
Water column is so great that when winter winds sustained as a result of mixing of water masses in the lake some years not covered by ice or ice loose and unstable.
In the Kuril Lake spawns the largest in Eurasia herd sockeye. The optimal number of manufacturers that provide expanded reproduction herd, estimated at between 1.5-3.5 million. Specimens; In reality, the lake was setting up to 6 million. Producers (1990). Spawning sockeye unusually extended: it continues from July to March. 71% of the spawning areas falls on lake, 26% - on the river, and 3% - key spawning grounds. At the mouth of the river Ozernoi the permanent scientific KamchatNIRO hospital. The abundance of sockeye salmon for such a long time is the most important feature of the natural complex of the lake.
Sockeye salmon - salmon passage: born and grows in fresh water, then rolls for feeding a generous Pacific Ocean. Kuril Lake - vazhneyschy maternity hospital and a kindergarten. It has long been the Kurile Lake sockeye salmon has the highest number in Asia, only a few years behind Närke Kamchatka River - the largest river of the peninsula. Catch of the Kurile Lake sockeye from the beginning of the XXI century has increased significantly and now accounts for a fifth of the total world catch of this species. What caused the current well-being of the population - it is not entirely clear. Reduction in competition with other species of fish at feeding in the ocean? The warming of the planet, which led to an improvement in conditions for sockeye?
On an island in the lake is one of the largest freshwater colonies Pacific gulls of more than 1500 pairs.
In winter, there is going to unparalleled accumulation of large birds of prey: Steller's sea eagles to 300-700, 100-150 white-tailed eagles, golden eagles and 50, known case of aerial bald eagles. Most of them kept on river and key spawning grounds in the area between Hakytsyn - Etamynka and River Marsh. On the open waters of the winter hundreds of Whooper Swans and ducks to 1.5-2 thousand. All of them (even species-vegetarians), as well as small forest birds - Pukhlyak, nuthatch, small spotted woodpecker - in one way or another feed sockeye or its caviar. Winter lake ecosystem Kuril unique.
Finally, the basin of the lake is part of a fairly large area in the extreme south of the Kamchatka Peninsula, where the high concentration of passerine birds (especially forest) on autumn migration. The fact that the area is a place prelaunch stop passerines leaving Kamchatka via the Cape Lopatka, because further south there is no stopping conditions for long-term forest birds.
To the north-eastern part of the lake adjacent to the existing stratovolcano Il'inskii impressive regular conical building height of 1578 m. The youngest lava flows of the volcano descend directly into the lake, forming several bays. Western shore of the lake framed by volcanic extrusion - Wild ridge crest with the highest mark of 1080 meters. In calm clear weather like volcanoes in the mirror reflected on the surface of the lake, creating a fantastic beauty of the scenery. Kuril Lake - one of the most beautiful parts of Kamchatka, at any time of the year.
In winter, the area is characterized by very poor and unstable weather conditions. Not a week goes by without the strong winds (do25-30 m / s or more), with the snow thaws, successive severe frosts (up to -20º and more).
The first of the Russian Kuril Lake visited most likely Cossacks led by R. Presnetsovym in 1703 was the first researcher Lake Steller in 1740. The most detailed descriptions of the lake was the first to AN Derzhavin - Member complex Kamchatka expedition FP Ryabushinsky committed to the area two trips (in 1908 and 1909.). The first and most detailed archaeological studies are carried out (in 1911) VI Yokhelson.
Kuril Lake - one of the most beautiful natural sites of Kamchatka outstanding value for scientific, educational and recreational objectives.
The territory of South Kamchatka Federal Preserve as Kronotsky national park is included in the List of Natural Heritage by UNESCO in 1996 as part of the Volcanoes of Kamchatka.
Source: Kronoksky zapovdenik